Created by one of nature’s quirks; it forms one of the most unique and beautiful geographical features of Valencia and of the entire Mediterranean coast.
Nature formed this magnificent area where the marine life and fauna all reside in a truly exceptional climate. The only similar paragon with the Peñon is the Rock of Gibraltar.
The Peñon has two distinguishable parts: the upper surface with vertical limestone walls and the lower part with a different composition, containing more clay, gentle uphill slopes and recent formations.
The newer portion of the Peñon is lower than the upper portions and did not originate in situ, but because of a huge detachment or landslide from the nearby Sierra de Olta Mountain.
Despite being in a highly populated area, the rock retains much of its biological value and plant life. Many of the plants that grow there have caught the attention of botanical experts worldwide as do the different type of birds that nest in its crevices or stop over to rest during migration. The Eleonora Falcon (Falco eleonorae), the Peregrine Falcon, the European Shag a species of cormorant , the Alcatraz, a type of pelican, the northern gannet, the pallid swift, the yellow-legged gull, the common kestrel and the European Greenfinch as well as lots of reptiles and lizards.
The Peñon belonged to the town of Calpe until the late nineteenth century, when it passed into the hands of various private owners until being acquired by the Generalitat Valenciana, shortly before being declared a Nature park.
As one of the smaller European nature parks, only covering 47 hectares, this promontory is unique due to its bioclimatic features, the nature of its soil along with the variety of flora and vegetation.